Maikop is the capital of Adygey Republic, Krasnodar Territory, Southern European Russia, at the foot of the Greater Caucasus and on the Belaya River. It has machinery, lumber, and food-processing industries. Nearby are the important Maikop oil fields, discovered in 1900-1901 and linked by pipeline with the refineries at Krasnodar and the Black Sea port of Tuapse. Maikop was founded in 1857 as a Russian fortress. It was captured by German troops in 1942 and retaken by Soviet forces in 1943. The name of the city also appears as Maykop. The city has a teacher-training institute and an institute of the Adygey language, history, economy and literature. There are two drama theatres in the city, an Adygey and a Russian ones. Philharmonic society. A museum of history and local lore and the North Caucasian branch of the State museum of Oriental peoples' art. The city centre is formed by Ploshchad Lenina with a monument to V.I. Lenin and Ploshchad Druzhby with the monument of Druzhba (Friendship).